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In this section you find a list of references showing the first publications on the depletion of phagocytic cells in various organs and tissues, using liposome encapsulated clodronate. Moreover reviews are listed on the mechanisms of liposome mediated “suicide” of macrophages, its applications in macrophage research, possible therapeutic applications and preparation of clodronate liposomes. Go to useful references Go to all references

You can find useful documentation here:

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Important Notes

Concentration

There is only one parameter that is important. The present suspension of liposome encapsulated clodronate is containing ca. 5 mg of clodronate per 1 ml of the suspension. The dimensions and other parameters of liposomes in the suspension are varying (not between different suspensions, but in one single suspension). Given that the clodronate enters the macrophage with the liposomes as Trojan horses, their dimensions are not important, only the total amount of encapsulated clodronate injected.

Storage

The suspension of clodronate liposomes should never be frozen, nor be exposed to extreme high temperatures. Store at 4-8 degrees Celcius. If there is a risk that liposomes are stored below zero or at temps over 30 degrees Celsius during transport, do not order liposomes. We cannot control the storage conditions during transport and e.g. in the offices of Customs.

Shipping

When ordering liposomes, costs and expected shipping date will automatically appear on the order form when clicking on it. This is to show you this information before sending us the order. Please be aware that this shipping date does apply only to orders of clodronate liposomes and control liposomes that can be taken from the standard batch. Specific requirements, if applicable, may take more time.

Fedex tracking numbers can be found under MY ACCOUNT when clicking on ORDERS there. By subsequent clicking on the tracking number you will be connected with the FedEx tracking service to follow your order. They will also be sent to you by e-mail.

Product Information

Clodronate Liposomes

The use of clodronate liposomes is intended solely for tests in laboratory research animals.

Store clodronate liposomes between 4 to 8 degrees Celcius. The suspension of liposomes should not be freezed.

We advise our customers to use our products within 10 weeks after shipment. After this period the risk of contamination increases and a slight loss of function could occur.

Product description

  1. Clodronate liposomes is a suspension of artificially prepared lipid vesicles encapsulating clodronate.
  2. The concentration of clodronate in the suspension is ca. 5 mg per 1 ml.
  3. Composition: clodronate, phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol.

The liposomes are suspended in sterile phospate buffered saline:

  • 10 mM Na2HPO4
  • 10 mM NaH2PO4
  • >140 mM NaCl

Go to frequent asked questions

Concentration

There is only one parameter that is important. The present suspension of liposome encapsulated clodronate is containing ca. 5 mg of clodronate per 1 ml of the suspension. The dimensions and other parameters of liposomes in the suspension are varying (not between different suspensions, but in one single suspension). Given that the clodronate enters the macrophage with the liposomes as Trojan horses, their dimensions are not important, only the total amount of encapsulated clodronate injected.

Shipping

When ordering liposomes, costs and expected shipping date will automatically appear on the order form when clicking on it. This is to show you this information before sending us the order. Please be aware that this shipping date does apply only to orders of clodronate liposomes and control liposomes that can be taken from the standard batch. Specific requirements, if applicable, may take more time.

Fedex tracking numbers can be found under MY ACCOUNT when clicking on ORDERS there. By subsequent clicking on the tracking number you will be connected with the FedEx tracking service to follow your order. They will also be sent to you by e-mail.

Storage

The suspension of clodronate liposomes should never be frozen, nor be exposed to extreme high temperatures. Store at 4-8 degrees Celcius. If there is a risk that liposomes are stored below zero or at temps over 30 degrees Celsius during transport, do not order liposomes. We cannot control the storage conditions during transport and e.g. in the offices of Customs.

Our team is always available to answer your questions. Contact us by e-mail or phone.

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Explaining The Mechanism of Clodronate Liposomes

Clodronate is not a toxic drug in itself and liposomes (if prepared of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol) are not toxic either.

Free Clodronate will not easily pass phospholipid bilayers of liposomes and cell membranes but liposomes are eagerly swallowed by macrophages.

The implication is that Clodronate, once delivered into phagocytic cells using liposomes as vehicles, will not escape from the cell. After disruption of the phospholipid. bilayers of the liposomes under the influence of the lysosomal phospholipases in the macrophage, the drug, which is dissolved in the aqueous compartments between the liposomal bilayers, is released into the cell.

The Clodronate is accumulated intracellularly and after exceeding a threshold concentration, the cell is irreversibly damaged and dies by apoptosis (J. Immunol. Meth. 193: 93-99, 1996).

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